Head of Mission – South Sudan – Juba
--ALIMA - South Sudan--
ALIMA supports one health and nutrition project in Raja, 1 project in Aweil and 1 Ebola Viral Disease project in Juba, South Sudan.
An independent nation as of 9 July 2011, South Sudan was the location of much of the fighting during the second Sudanese civil war (1983–2005), which pitted a coalition of Sudanese armed forces, paramilitaries, and non-state armed groups against the rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). Both sides armed Southern tribal militias, and the SPLM/A split numerous times, with some factions returning to the government only to rebel once again. In the latter phases of the war, much of the conflict was intra-Southern, with the pro-government fighting conducted by a patchwork of Khartoum-supported Southern commanders and militias loosely organized under the banner of the South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF).
The SPLA and the Government of Sudan signed a series of agreements culminating in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005, which established a six-year interim period for Southern Sudan to consider its future relationship with Sudan, while the SSDF was side-lined. Following the death of SPLA leader John Garang, his successor Salva Kiir attempted to integrate the former SSDF commander into the army through the 2006 Juba Declaration, even as the inner circle of the regime moved more decisively towards supporting independence.
As Southern independence approached, a number of rebellions by former SSDF commanders, as well as others linked to tribal groups in conflict with the Dinka-dominated SPLA, shook the Greater Upper Nile region. Some of the rebel commanders were supported by Khartoum.
The fragile governing coalition between former enemies unravelled in 2013 after President Salva Kiir’s unilateral sacking of his cabinet and the firing of his vice-president, Riek Machar, who was close to anti-SPLA militia leaders from the civil-war era. The political crisis became a military and humanitarian one after elements of the SPLA killed an unknown number of ethnic Nuer in Juba in December 2013, rebel cadres rapidly self-mobilized, with Riek as leader, and large numbers of the army defected to the rebellion, known as the SPLM-in Opposition (SPLM-IO). Fighting concentrated largely in Greater Upper Nile. The breakdown of the latest, IGAD-brokered cease-fire agreement in July 2017 has fuelled violence in the Greater Equatoria, which had been relatively spared by the conflict until the Arrow Boys militia initiated their rebellion in the former Western Equatoria. This added further strain to an already exhausted civilian population across the country.
The population is uprooted. More than 2.3 million people – one in every five people in South Sudan - have been forced to flee their homes since the conflict began, including 1.66 million internally displaced people (with 53.4 per cent estimated to be children) and nearly 644,900 refugees in neighbouring countries. Some 185,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) have sought refuge in UN Protection of Civilians (PoC) sites, while around 90 per cent of IDPs are on the run or sheltering outside PoC sites. Due to the fluidity of displacement, it is difficult to determine the number of IDP returnees. However, humanitarian partners estimate that some 300,000 will be in need of assistance in 2016. Thousands of homes have been ruined during the fighting and many people have been displaced multiple times because of repeated attacks. Thousands of people living with HIV have seen their life-sustaining treatment interrupted without possibility of resumption due to displacement.
More than 686,200 children under age 5 are estimated to be acutely malnourished, including more than 231,300 who are severely malnourished. Between 15,000 to 16,000 children are estimated to be recruited by armed actors in South Sudan. Over 10,000 children have been registered as unaccompanied, separated or missing. An adolescent girl in South Sudan is three times more likely to die in childbirth than complete primary school. An estimated one million children are believed to be in psychosocial distress.
The International Crisis Group estimated that between 50,000 to 100,000 people across South Sudan had been killed in the period December 2013 to November 2014. This number increased as fighting continued. In Leer, Mayendit and Koch counties of Unity State alone, an estimated 1,000 civilians were killed, 1,300 women and girls were raped and 1,600 women and children were abducted from April to September 2015. Mortality has been exacerbated by acute malnutrition and disease, including an unprecedented malaria outbreak and a cholera outbreak in 2015 for the second year in a row.
In the current analysis period of January 2019, 6.17 million people (54% of the population) are estimated to have faced Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity or worse, out of which 1.36 million people faced Emergency (IPC Phase 4) acute food insecurity and 30,000 faced Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) . The people in Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5) in January 2019 are found in four counties, namely: Canal/Pigi and Pibor (former Jonglei); Panyikang (former Upper Nile); and Cueibet (former Lakes). Large-scale humanitarian assistance is urgently needed to save lives and protect livelihoods in these counties. Compared with the same time last year, the January 2019 levels of food insecurity reflect a 13% increase in the population facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity or worse in the post-harvest season.
Infrastructure losses are extensive. South Sudan is one of the most logistically challenging places in the world and has one of the most underdeveloped communications technology infrastructures. The severely under developed and under maintained roads makes 60 per cent of the country inaccessible by road during the rainy season. Prior to the conflict, healthcare was extremely difficult to access in South Sudan, with an estimated 0.15 doctors per 10,000 patients and 0.2 midwives/nurses per 10,000 people. As of September 2015, some 55 per cent of the health facilities in Unity State, Upper Nile State and Jonglei were no longer functioning. The rising cost of living and impact of the conflict have undermined people’s ability to access safe water, including due to the destruction of water points. 110 million square metres of land is contaminated by landmines and explosive remnants of war.
The renewed conflicts in December 2013 and July 2016 have undermined the development gains achieved since independence and worsened the humanitarian situation. The conflict is estimated to have led to nearly 400,000 excess deaths since 2013 and more than 4.3 million people have been displaced both internally and to neighboring countries. The latest UN updates suggest that about 7 million (more than half the population) were assessed to be severely food insecure between May and September 2018. The World Bank In South Sudan
South Sudan is the most oil-dependent country in the world, with oil accounting for almost the totality of exports, and around 60% of its gross domestic product (GDP). The country’s GDP per capita in 2014 was $1,111 dropping to less than $200 in 2017. Outside the oil sector, livelihoods are concentrated in low productive, unpaid agriculture and pastoralists work.
South Sudan’s economic collapse continues, with output contracting, and inflation and parallel exchange market premium soaring. Monetization of the fiscal deficit led to strong money growth and high inflation, although there are indications that borrowing from the Bank of South Sudan had recently been limited. The year-on-year annual Consumer Price Index (CPI) increased by 88.5% between June 2017 and June 2018. The spread between the official and the parallel market exchange rates remains wide (44% in July 2018), despite the recent exchange rate appreciation.
STRATEGY, COORDINATION AND REPRESENTATION
Position to be filled: ASAP
Salary: Very competitive package + depending on experience
ALIMA pays for:
HOW TO APPLY ?
N.B.: Applications are processed in the order of arrival and we reserve the right to close the offer before the term initially indicated if a good application is successful.
Please note that only short-listed candidates will be contacted.